Diamond Sutra Rough Draft / Unfinished

This is a translation of The Diamond Sutra that I starter a long time ago but never finished. I was translating it from the Tibetan, using some translations from the Chinese and Sanskrit as reference points. This is a totally rough draft of the first part of the text, with notes to myself (?) left in:

Homage to the Buddhas and Bodhisattvas!

 Thus have I heard:

     At one time the Buddha was staying by Sravasti, in Prince Jeta’s grove, the garden of Anathapindika, together with a large company of monks, even 1,250, and numerous great Bodhisattvas. Then, in the morning, Buddha put on his robe and undergarments, took up his begging bowl, and entered the great city of Sravasti in order to beg for alms. Having begged for his food, Buddha returned and, with renunciation, ate. He then put away his begging bowl and robe and sat down on the seat arranged for him, crossing his legs and straightening his body with evident mindfulness.

     Many monks then proceeded to approach where the Buddha was, bowing their heads towards his feet, circumambulating him three times, and sitting off to one side.

     At that time the venerable Subhuti once more appeared at the assembly and sat down. He then got up from his seat, arranged his robe over one shoulder, kneeled, his right knee to the ground, and with hands respectfully folded said to the Buddha, “Bhagavan, Sugata, it is really quite wonderful how much the Tathagata, the Arhat, the fully enlightened Buddha has helped the great Bodhisattvas by providing them with the greatest help and favored the great Bodhisattvas by favoring them with the highest favor! Bhagavan, how should the Bodhisattva vehicle be entered? How should one dwell in it? How should one progress in it? What is the best way to take hold of the mind?”

     At these words Buddha replied to the venerable Subhuti, “Well said Subhuti, very well said! It’s just like that Subhuti, it’s just like that! The Tathagata has helped the great Bodhisattvas with the greatest help and has favored them with the highest favor. Therefore Subhuti, listen well and take what I say to heart. I will explain to you how the Bodhisattva vehicle should be entered, how it should be dwelled in, and what the best way is to take hold of the mind.”

     Having heard the Buddha’s words, venerable Subhuti requested him to continue, saying, “Please do Bhagavan!”

     Buddha said, “Subhuti, with respect to entering the Bodhisattva vehicle, think like this: However many sentient beings there are in the world of sentient beings, whether they be born from an egg, a womb, out of moisture, or through a miracle – However many can be designated as ‘sentient beings’ – whether they have form or no form, discrimination (check compared to ‘understanding’) or no discrimination, or neither discrimination or no discrimination – all these I must lead to the sphere of completely perfect Nirvana, Nirvana which leaves nothing behind. And yet, when countless sentient beings have been led to Nirvana, no sentient being whatsoever has been led to Nirvana. Why is this? Because Subhuti, a Bodhisattva who falls into the notion of ‘sentient beings’ could not rightly be called a Bodhisattva. And why is this? Because Subhuti, anyone who falls into the notion (idea) of ‘a sentient being,’ ‘a living creature,’ or ‘an individual person’ could not rightly be called a Bodhisattva.

     “Furthermore Subhuti, a Bodhisattva should give gifts without being attached to them as if they were real things; one should give gifts withour being attached to any of their particular attributes. A gift should be given without attachment to form – A gift should be given without attachment to sound, smell, taste, touch, or any quality. So it is Subhuti that a Bodhisattva should give gifts without being attached to the idea (notion) of labels. Why is this? Because Subhuti, when a Bodhisattva gives gifts without attachment he amasses a great deal of merit – the measure of which is not easy to calculate Subhuti.

     “Subhuti, do you think it would be easy to calculate the measure of space extending in an eastern direction?”

     “No indeed Bhagavan!” replied Subhuti.

     “Likewise,” continued the Buddha, “do you think it would be easy to calculate the measure of space extending in a southern, western or a northern direction, extending above or below, in the intermediate directions, or any of the ten directions?”

     “No indeed Bhagavan!” replied Subhuti.

     “In the same way,” said the Buddha, “is it not easy to calculate the measure of merit that a Bodhisattva amasses when he gives a gift without attachment.

     “Now what do you think Subhuti, is the Tathagata to be recognized by his perfect physical characteristics?”

     “No indeed Bhagavan!” replied Subhuti. “The Tathagata is not to be recognized by his perfect physical characteristics. Why is this? Because, from what the Tathagata has said, the suchness of perfect physical characteristics is the non-existence of perfect physical characteristics.”

     The Buddha said, “So Subhuti, you think that that perfect physical characteristics are a fiction? Then it goes without saying that the non-existence of perfect phyical characteristics is not a fiction. Recognize the non-existence of characteristics to be characteristics and you recognize the Tathagata.”

     At these words the venerable Subhuti asked the Buddha, “Bhagavan, in the future, in the final five-hundred years, when Buddhism has completely disintigrated, will there be any sentient beings who will correctly understand the words of this sutra when they are explained?”

     “How can you ask this Subhuti?” replied the Buddha. “Yes, of course there will be sentient beings in the future, in the final five-hundred years, when Buddhism has completely disintigrated, who will correctly understand the words of this sutra when they are explained. Furthermore Subhuti, in the future, in the final five-hundred years, when Buddhism has completely disintigrated, there will appear great Bodhisattvas who are endowed with morality, good qualities and insight, and who will correctly understand the words of this sutra when they are explained. And those great Bodhisattvas, Subhuti, will have not planted their roots of virtue beside just one Buddha, but, by venerating many hundreds of thousands of Buddhas, will have planted their roots of virtue beside many hundreds of thousands of Buddhas. Subhuti, whoever, when the words of this sutra are explained, discovers (withing themselves) even one single thought of faith, will Subhuti be recognized by the Tathagata. Subhuti, they will be seen by the Tathagata. And all those sentient beings Subhuti will produce and collect an immeasurable mass of merit. And why is this? Because Subhuti, those great Bodhisattvas do not fall into the notion of an ‘I,’ a ‘sentient being,’ a ‘living creature,’ or an ‘individual person.’ Nor Subhuti do they even fall into the notion of ‘notions’ or the non-existence of ‘notions’. And why is this? Because Subhuti, if those great Bodhisattvas were to fall into the notion of there being some intrinsic quality then that itself would constitute grasping on an ‘I,’ a ‘sentient being,’ a ‘living creature,’ and an ‘individual person.’ And, if they were to fall into the notion of the non-existence of an intrinsic quality, then that too would constitute grasping on an ‘I,’ a ‘sentient being,’ a ‘living creature,’ and an ‘individual person.’ Why is this? Again Subhuti, because it is a mistake to grasp on dharma as well as the non-existence of dharma, both being things that are ungraspable. That is why the Tathagata has used this metaphor: ‘Know Dharma to be like a raft – Dharma should be abandoned, how much more so the non-existence of Dharma.'”

     Furthermore Buddha asked the venerable Subhuti, “What do you think Subhuti, is there any dharma whatsoever that exists in the Tathagata as ‘the highest complete and perfect enlightenment?’ Has the Tathagata taught any Dharma whatsoever?”

     At these words venerable Subhuti said to the Buddha, “Bhagavan, from my understanding of what you have just said, there is no ‘highest complete and perfect enlightenment’ whatsoever that exists in the Tathagata. And why is this? Because any Dharma, whatsoever, which the Tathagata has taught as ‘complete and perfect enlightenment’ is both ungraspable and inexpressable – Indeed it is neither Dharma nor is it the non-existence of Dharma. And why is this? Because sages are revealed by means of the unconditioned.”

     Buddha said, “What do you think Subhuti: If a son of a good family or daughter of a good family were to fill this world system of a thousand million worlds full of the seven precious substances and give that away as a gift, would that son of good family or daughter of a good family, on those grounds, produce a great deal of merit?”

     Subhuti replied, “A great deal indeed Bhagavan! On those grounds a son of a good family or daughter of a good family would produce a great deal of merit indeed Sugata! And why is this? Because Bhagavan, the Tathagata has said concerning this great deal, this mass of merit, ‘The suchness of a great deal, a mass of merit, is no great deal, no mass.'”

     Buddha said, “Subhuti, if, on the one hand, a son of a good family or daughter of a good family were to fill this world system of a thousand million worlds with the seven precious substances and give that away as a gift, and yet on the other, someone else were to retain from this discourse on Dharma even just one stanza of four lines, explain it and correctly teach it to others, then on those grounds the latter would produce the countlessly immeasurably geater deal of merit. Why is this? Because Subhuti, from it arises the complete and perfect enlightenment of the Tathagatas, the Arhats, the completely perfect Buddhas; from it the Buddhas, the Bhagavans are born. And why is this? Because Subhuti, when the Tathagata mentioned ‘the Buddhadharma, the Buddhadharma,’ those Buddhadharmas did not exist. For that very reason are they called ‘Buddhadharmas.’

     “What do you think Subhuti: Does a Stream-Attainer think, ‘The fruit of a Stream-Attainer has been obtained by me?'”

     “No indeed Bhagavan!” replied Subhuti. “And why is this? Because Bhagavan, there is no attaining, which is the very reason why he is called a ‘Stream-Attainer.’ No form has been attained to, no sound, no smell, no taste, and no touch – No Dharma has been attained to. Thus ‘Stream-Attainer.’ If, Bhagavan, a Stream-Attainer were to think, ‘The fruit of a Stream-Attainer has been obtained by me,’ then, in reality, that would be grasping at a self. That would be grasping at a sentient being, a living creature, and an individual person.”

     Buddha asked, “What do you think Subhuti: Does a Once-Returner think, ‘The fruit of a Once-Returner has been obtained by me?'”          

     “No indeed Bhagavan!” replied Subhuti. “And why is this? Because there is no dharma whatsoever which has attained Once-Returnership. Thus is he called a ‘Once-Returner.'”

     Buddha said (asked), “What so you think Subhuti: Does a Never-Returner think, ‘The fruit of a Never-Returner has been obtained by me?'”

     “No indeed Bhagavan!” replied Subhuti. “And why is this? Because there is no dharma whatsoever which has attained Never-Returnership. Thus is he called a ‘Never-Returner.'”

     Buddha asked, “What do you think Subhuti: Does an Arhat think, ‘Arhatship has been obtained by me?'”

     “No indeed Bhagavan!” replied Subhuti. “And why is this? Because there is no dharma whatsoever which is called ‘Arhat.’ If, Bhagavan, an Arhat were to think, ‘Arhatship has been obtained by me,’ then, in reality, that would be grasping at a self. That would be grasping at a sentient being, a living creature, and an individual person.

     “Bhagavan, I have been pointed out by the Tathagata, the Arhat, the fully enlightened Buddha as foremost of those who abide in peace. I am, Bhagavan, an Arhat free from desire, and yet, Bhagavan, I do not think, ‘I am an Arhat free from desire.’ If, Bhagavan, I were to think, ‘Arhatship has been obtained by me,’ then the Tathagata would not have intuited, have declared of me, ‘Subhuti, the son of a good family, the foremost of those who abide in peace, does not abide anywhere – Therefore is he called, ‘one who abides in peace, one who abides in peace indeed!'”

     Buddha asked, “What do you think Subhuti: Does there exist any Dharma which I have adopted from Dipankara, the Tathagata, the Arhat, the fully enlightened Buddha?”

     Subhuti replied, “No indeed Bhagavan! There exists no Dharma which the Tathagata has adopted from Dipankara, the Tathagata, the Arhat, the perfectly enlightened Buddha.” (or – the Dharma which the Tathagata has adopted from Dipankara etc. is non-existent) 

     Buddha said, “Subhuti, if any Bodhisattva were to say, ‘Buddhafields (grounds, i.e. grounds of a bodhisattva?) will be established by me,’ then that would not be speaking the truth. Why is this? Because Subhuti, the Tathagata has said (taught) that those Buddhafields (?) are non-existent. Therefore are they called Buddhafields.

     “Therefore then Subhuti is it like this: A great Bodhisattva should produce (generate) a mind which is not attached – Produce a mind which is not attached to anything whatsoever – Produce a mind which is not attached to form – Produce a mind which is not attached to sound, smell, taste, touch, or any quality…This, Subhuti, by way of example, would be like a man having a body the size of Sumeru, the king of mountains. What do you think Subhuti? Would that be a great body?”

     “It would be a great body indeed Bhagavan, Sugata,” replied Subhuti. “And why is this? Because, from what the Tathagata has said, it does not exist. Therefore is it called a ‘body.’ The Tathagata has said that it does not exist. Therefore is it called a ‘great body.'”

     Buddha asked, “What do you think Subhuti? If there were as many Ganges rivers as there are grains of sand in the river Ganges, and again in in each of those just as many grains of sand, would that be many?”

     Subhuti replied, “Bhagavan, those Ganges rivers alone would be many, what need is there to mention the grains of sand!”

     Buddha said, “You should have faith Subhuti, you should fully understand! If, for every grain of sand in those Ganges rivers there were a world system, and a man or woman were to fill each with the seven precious substances, giving these as gifts to the Tathagatas, the Arhats, the completely perfect Buddhas – What do you think Subhuti: Would, on the grounds of such a deed, that man or woman produce a great deal of merit?”

     “Yes, a great deal Bhagavan! A great deal indeed Sugata!” replied Subhuti. “On the grounds of such a deed that man or woman would produce a great deal of merit!

     Buddha said, “Subhuti, if, on the one hand, someone were to fill each of those world systems with the seven precious substances and give these as a gifts to the Tathagatas, the Arhats, the completely perfect Buddhas, and yet on the other, someone else were to retain from this discourse on Dharma even just one stanza of four lines, explain (should I use a synonym since the Tibetan differs from the previous example?) it and correctly teach it to others, then, in reality, on those grounds the latter would produce the countlessly immeasurably geater deal of merit.

     “Furthermore Subhuti, wherever this discourse on Dharma is recited, even just one stanza of four lines, that place of recital will become a shrine for the world together with its gods, men, and asuras. How much more so when this discourse on Dharma is accepted, upheld, read, thouroughly studied and respected (?) (for others?). It is truly wonderful! (?) At that place the Teacher dwells, the Guru abides, the congregation abides.”

     At these the venerable Subhuti asked the Buddha, “Bhagavan, by what name should this discourse on Dharma be upheld? (What is the name of this discourse on Dharma? What then should it be called?)”         

      At these words Buddha replied to the venerable Subhuti, “Subhuti, this discourse on dharma is ‘The Perfection of Wisdom’ and as such must it (should it) be upheld!

     “Why is this? Because Subhuti, the suchness of what has been spoken of as the Tathagata’s perfection of wisdom is the non-existence of perfection. Therefore (for that reason) it is called ‘The Perfection of Wisdom.’

     “Subhuti, what do you think? Has the Tathagata spoken of any dharma as existing?” (check this passage and previous one i.e. the action of the Tathagata and ‘spoken’)

     “The Tathagata has not spoken of any dharma as existing,” replied Subhuti. (or, maybe better – The Tathagata has spoken of all(?) dharma as not existing.)

     Buddha asked (said), “Subhuti, what do you think? Does there exist in this world system of one-thousand million worlds a great many minute (?) specks of dust?”

     “Bhagavan, there would be many specks of dust indeed! Many indeed Sugata!” replied Subhuti. “And why is this? Because Bhagavan, what the Tathagata has spoken of as specks of dust is the non-existence of dust. Therefore are they called ‘specks of dust.’ What the Tathagata has spoken of as a world system is the non-existence of a system (world?). Therefore is it called a ‘world system.'”

     Buddha asked, “Subhuti, what do you think? Is the Tathagata, the Arhat, the completely perfect Buddha to be recognized by those thirty-two physical characteristics of a great man?”

     “Indeed not Bhagavan!” replied Subhuti. “Why is this? Because what the Tathagata has spoken of as the thirty-two physical characteristics of a great man were spoken of by the Tathagata as the non-existence of physical characteristics. Therefore are they called ‘the thirty-two physical characteristics of the Tathagata.'”

     Buddha said, “Furthermore Subhuti, if a man or woman were to (completely) sacrifice their body as many times as there are grains of sand in the river Ganges and yet someone else were to retain from this discourse on Dharma even just one stanza of four lines and correctly teach it to others then on those grounds the latter would produce the countlessly immeasurably geater deal of merit.”

     Then, due to the strength of the Dharma, the venerable Subhuti shed tears. Wiping them away (lit. the tears) he spoke these words to the Buddha: “Bhagavan, Sugata, it is really quite wonderful that the Tathagata  should preach (speak, teach) this discourse on Dharma (like this)! Wisdom has been born within me. Never before have I heard such a discourse (this type) on Dharma. Those sentient beings will be quite remarkable, Bhagavan,  who, when this sutra is being explained (set forth), generate a correct understanding. “

And why is this? Because Bhagavan, the suchness (in reality) of correct understanding (discrimination) is the non-existence of understanding. Therefore the Tathagata has said, ‘correct understanding, correct understanding (indeed).’

When this discourse (kind) on Dharma is being explained I accept it with faith. In me there is no faith. –CHECK!!!

 Those sentient beings will be quite remarkable who, in a future time, a future period, in the final five-hundred years, accept, uphold, read and thouroughly study this discourse on Dharma (?) (for others?). Again Bhagavan, they will not fall into the notion (idea) of a self, a sentient being, a living creature, nor, (indeed) will they fall into the notion of an individual person. And why is this? Because Bhagavan, the notion of a self, a sentient being, a living creature and an individual person is, in reality (suchness), the non-existence of notions (idea). And why is this? Because the Buddhas, the Bhagavans are free of notions. (if ‘ideas’ is used it could sound strange – but maybe ok)

     At these words Buddha replied (?) to the the venerable Subhuti, “It’s just like that Subhuti, it’s just like that!

—line missing–

And why is this? Because Subhuti, the Tathagata has preached (taught) teh perfect perfection. The Tathagata preaches the perfect perfection even as countless other Buddhas and Bhagavans preach. Therefore is it called the ‘perfect perfection.’    

     “Again Subhuti, the suchness (reality) of the Tathagata’s perfection of patience is the non-existence of perfection. Why is this? Because Subhuti, at the time when the King of Kalinga cut away my limbs, my various body parts, niether the notion of a self, a sentient being, a living creature nor the notion of an individual person crossed my (I) mind. My (I) notions (ideas) were not simply nothingness, but, then again, niether did they exist. And why is this? Because Subhuti, if, at that time, the notion (idea) of a self, a sentient being, a living creature or the notion of an individual person were to have occured, then at that time a base notion ( make an exception, use ‘thought’?) would have also occured. Through my supernatural perception I see that, in the past, five-hundred rebirths ago, I was an ascetic (sage) called Preacher of Patience (Kshantivadin). Then also no notion (idea) of a self, a sentient being, a living creature or the notion of an individual person occured to me. Therefore is it Subhuti that a great Bodhisattva should abandon all notions (ideas) and generate completely perfect bodhicitta (altruistic mind of enlightenment). He (?masculine) should generate a mind which is not attached to form – He should generate a mind which is not attached to sound, smell, taste, touch, or any quality. He should not be attached to the non-existence of phenomena. He should not be attached to anything. And why is this? –(missing line)– That is why the Tathagata says that a Bodhisattva gives gifts with non-attachment.

     “Again Subhuti, A Bodhsattva should give gifts freely, in order to benefit all sentient beings. -line missing-line missing- And why is this? Because Subhuti, the Tathagata speaks correctly, he speaks the truth, he speaks suchness; the Tathagata speaks suchness without error.

     “Again Subhuti, with respect to this Dharma which the Tathagata has fully realized(?), and demonstrated(?), in it neither truth nor falsehood exist. Subhuti, it is like this for example: A man with clear vision enters the darkness and sees nothing at all; in this way should be seen a Bodhisattva who, having fallen from true existence, gives gifts. But Subhuti, at daybreak, when the sun rises, a man with clear vision, endowed with a human body, sees all variety of things; in this way should be seen a Bodhisattva who, not haveing fallen from true existence, gives gifts.

     “Again Subhuti, whatever son of a good family or daughter of a good family accept this discourse on Dharma , upheld, read, thouroughly studied and respected (?) (for others?) (thouroughly teaches it to others?), they are known by the Tathagata, they are percieved by the Tathagata. All those sentient beings will produce an immeasurable heap (?)of merit.

     “Again Subhuti, if a (whatever) man or woman, in the morning, were to (completely) sacrifice their body as many times as there are grains of sand in the river Ganges, and were to likewise (completely) sacrifice their body as many times as there are grains of sand in the river Ganges in the (after)noon and evening, in this manner (completely) sacrificing thier bodies for many hundreds of thousands of hundreds of billions of aeons, and yet someone else, upon hearing this discourse on Dharma does not abandon it, then, in reality(? tadeva), on those grounds the latter would produce the countlessly immeasurably geater deal of merit. How much more so when, upon sriting it down(?), this discourse on Dharma is accepted, upheld, read, thouroughly studied and correctly and extensively taught to others?

     “Furthermore Subhuti, this discourse on Dharma is both incogitable (?) and incomparable. The Tathagata has taught this discourse on Dharma (it?) for the benefit of those sentient beings who have entered the supreme vehicle, for the benefit of those sentient beings who have entered the perfect vehicle. Those who accept this discourse on Dharma, uphold, read, thouroughly study and correctly and extensively teach it to others, they are known by the Tathagata, they are percieved by the Tathagata. All those sentient beings will produce an immeasurable heap (?)of merit; they will be endowed with an incogitable, incomparable, incomprehensible, immeasurable heap of merit. All those sentient beings will bear upon thier shoulders my enlightenment. Why is this? Because Subhuti, it is not possible for this discourse on Dharma to be heard by those of little faith, nor by those who percieve a self, a sentient being, a living creature or an individual person; it is not possible that this should be taken up by them, upheld, read and thoroughly studied.

     “Furthermore Subhuti, wherever this sutra is taught (demonstrated) will be suitable for offering (worship) by the world together with its gods, men, and asuras. That place will become suitable for obeisance (?) and circumambulation. That place will come to be viewed as a shrine.

     “But Subhuti, those sons of a good family or daughters of a good family who will accept, uphold, read and thoroughly study the words of sutras like this, they will suffer, they will suffer greatly. Why is this? Because Subhuti, the vicious deeds (+karma?) that those sentient beings did in thier past  lives will, in this very life, be purifies; thier vicious karma will be purified; they will attain the enlightenment of a Buddha. 

     “Subhuti, through clairvoyance the past is known to me. Incalculabel, greatly incalculable aeons ago,  before, long before the Tathagata, the Arhat, the completely perfect Buddha Dipankara, I pleased eighty-four hundreds of thousands of hundreds of billions of tens of millions of Buddhas (who had come forth) with my actions; I pleased them with my actions, caused them no discontent. But Subhuti the great quantity of merit I (produced) through pleasing those Buddhas, those Bhagavans with my actions, causing them no discontent, is not a hundredth part, a thousandth part, a hundred-thousandth part as great a quantity of merit as will be (produce) by those who, in the future, in the final five hundred-years, accept, uphold, read and thoroughly study this sutra Subhuti – It does hold up to (bear) number (enumeration), fraction, count (calculation), example, resemblence  (analogy?), nor similarity (mark?) – If Subhuti I were to state how great those sons’ of a good family or daughters’ of a good family quantity of merit is, and how great is the quantity of merit that those sons of a good family or daughters of a good family will accumulate (Uphold?) at that time, sentient beings would become hysterical, their minds would become disturbed. Furthermore Subhuti, as this discourse on Dharma is inconcievable (uncognizable?), so also should one know the result of it to be inconcievable

     Then the venerable Subhuti asked the Buddha, “Bhagavan, how should the Bodhisattva vehicle be entered? How should one dwell in it? How should one progress in it? What is the best way to take hold of the mind?”

     Buddha replied, “Subhuti, with respect to entering the Bodhisattva vehicle, think like this: All sentient beings I must lead to the sphere of completely perfect Nirvana, Nirvana which leaves nothing behind. And yet, when sentient beings have been led to Nirvana, no sentient being whatsoever has been led to Nirvana. Why is this? Because Subhuti, (if? check pg2) a Bodhisattva who falls into the notion of ‘sentient beings’ could not rightly be called a Bodhisattva, as also (one) who falls into the notion(s) ranging from that up to an ‘individual person’ could not rightly be called a Bodhisattva. And why is this? Because Subhuti, there is no Dharma whatsoever called ‘(he) entering the Bodhisattva vehicle.’ 

     “What do you think Subhuti? When the Tathagata was with the Tathagata Dipankara, did there exist (was there) any dharma whatsoever in which he attained unsurpassable, perfect enlightenment, completely perfect Buddhahood?”

     At these words the venerable Subhuti replied to the Buddha, “Bhagavan, when the Tathagata was with the Tathagata Dipankara, there existed no dharma whatsoever in which he attained unsurpassable, perfect enlightenment, completely perfect Buddhahood.”

     At these words Buddha said to the venerable Subhuti, “It’s just like that Subhuti, it’s just like that! When the Tathagata was with the Tathagata Dipankara, there existed no (a little different this run with mae – maybe use was first time, existed second?) dharma whatsoever in which he attained unsurpassable, perfect enlightenment, completely perfect Buddhahood. Subhuti, if there was some dharma (existed?) in which the Tathagata attained complete perfect Buddhahood (check since differs, maybe ‘consummate perfect Buddhahood’ this goes for previous three lines as well) then the Tathagata Dipankara  would not have said to me in prophecy (prophecised to me, prophetically said), ‘Young Brahmin, you, at a future time, will become a Tathagata, an Arhat, a perfectly enlightened Buddha called Shakyamuni.’

     “Subhuti, thus it is that no dharma whatsoever exists in which the Tathagata has attained unsurpassable, perfect enlightenment, completely perfect Buddhahood; and that is why the Tathagata Dipankara said to me in prophecy (prophecised to me, prophetically said), ‘Young Brahmin, you, at a future time, will become a Tathagata, an Arhat, a perfectly enlightened Buddha called Shakyamuni.’

     “Why is this? Because Subhuti ‘Tathagata’ is a synonym for compete tathata (suchness). Subhuti, whoever says, ‘By attaining unsurpassable, completely perfect Buddhahood the Tathagata, the Arhat, the competely perfect Buddha attained unsurpassable, perfect enlightenment, supremely perfect Buddhahood,’ says the wrong (opposite?) thing . Why is this? Because Subhuti, no dharma whatsoever exists in which the Tathagata attained unsurpassable, perfect enlightenment, supremely perfect Buddhahood. Subhuti, as to the dharma in which the Tathagata attained supremely perfect Buddhahood, in it truth does not exist, but again neither does falsehood exist. Thus the Tathagata says, “All dharmas are Buddha’s dharma.”

     “Subhuti, it is like possesing an unperishable body, a great body.”

 

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